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    飲食文化中的社會現象

    時間:2018-12-30 15:17來源: 作者:唯心戀 點擊:
      

    周人以農業為本,誰種植技術強在當時是一件很值得夸耀的資本,加上當時繼承了商的天文歷法武器制造等知識和畜牧業的快速發展,飲食文化漸漸開始在周人中蔓延。《詩經》中有徭役詩、愛情詩、戰爭詩、婚戀詩、燕饗詩等,其中燕饗詩占了相當的比例,從《詩經》中我們可以清晰的窺見先秦時期的飲食文化,進而從飲食文化中看待當時的整個社會,達到“從吃的反映整個社會”的目的。

    《小雅·魚麗》為周代燕飧賓客通用之樂歌。先談談我之所以選擇《魚麗》這篇文章,是因為我注意到詩經中的詩大多是由四個字組成的,也就是四言詩,但是《魚麗》不一樣,你很難說這是四言詩,就算是也不算純粹的四言詩,因為它有兩個字的,有三個字的,也有四個字的。而且詩經中有徭役詩、愛情詩、戰爭詩、婚戀詩、燕饗詩,加上我對吃的東西比較感興趣,所以我選擇了這篇很短的詩。雖然很短,但是卻能反映很多社會現象。

    “魚麗于罶,鲿鯊,君子有酒,旨且多。魚麗于罶,魴鱧,君子有酒,多且旨。魚麗于罶,鰋鯉,君子有酒,旨且有”這里“罶”是一種捕魚的工具,畢竟有了工具才能有下文的魚。在這次宴會上都有哪些魚呢?有“鲿、鯊、魴、鱧、鰋、鯉”以魚的品種眾多,暗示其他肴饌的豐盛,可見當時一場宴席的品類之豐盛。這種方法屬于舉一反三,以簡馭繁,廣為后人效法。為了將這次宴會氣氛烘托出來,反復的用了“旨、多、有”幾個字,生動形象的寫出了菜肴的美味和主客之間的其樂融融。這幾句皆以“魚麗”起興,具體地歌贊主人酒宴的豐盛,禮遇的周到,可以說是全詩的主體部分。除了魚,還有酒。以酒的的美好,表明宴席上賓主盡情歡樂的盛況。自古以來酒就是宴會永恒的參與者,“沒有酒就沒有聚會”。說到酒,“酒”是豐年的象征,豐年釀酒,是先民歷來的習慣。后三章,“多、旨、有”又反復出現。這次贊美的就不是魚和酒了,而是贊美萬物盛多。情感更為深摯。“物其多矣,維其嘉矣;物其旨矣,維其偕矣;物其有矣,維其時矣”。物品之多,物之嘉美,物之齊全都由這幾個字完美的表現。

    《魚麗》看似只是記載了一場宴會的盛況,但是要明白,周代雖已進入農業社會,農業有了相當的發展,不僅廣興耕稼,而且許多魚類,已成為人們常見的美食,但是能擺出如此宴席的人必定不是個普通人。現在當代社會如此發達,亦不免有吃不起飯的人,更別說當時還是普遍靠青銅器的時代了。可以肯定他說,遠古時期能吃上魚的人,并非普通的平民百 姓。即使按今天的標準,能吃上鲿、鯊、魴、鱧、鰋一類魚的兒 也為數不多。再加上美酒無數,也非小民百姓擁有得起,享用得 起。品種齊,數量多,顯示了宴飲的規模。突出這兩項指標,標志著一種價值觀念:以奢侈作為炫耀財富、地位、身份的外包裝,認為這樣可以博取人們的尊重。這樣的宴會,只有三種人可以舉辦:周朝的王宮貴族;分封出去的王侯卿大夫;地方的豪強。先說《魚麗》,這篇文章你可能看不出有什么反應社會不好的地方,看到的只有豐盛,因為這篇文章本來就是歌頌當時人民生活多么富足安康的。欲表明豐物阜既是大自然的賜予,更是人類勤勞創造的成果。懂得享受,亦是一種“自然”。

    上面說到單從《魚麗》是看不出來社會富足的另一面的,這次我列舉的詩是《賓之初筵》,雖是一首描寫宴會的詩,但是卻是描寫賓客丑態的詩,主要是諷刺酒宴中飲酒無度而失禮敗德的行為。“賓之初筵,左右秩秩”開場用了一個“初”字,旨在說明宴會剛開始的時候賓客的禮節還是“秩秩”的,但是接下來就一定會有轉折了,這里就體現了先民詩歌的簡短凝練之處,單是一個“初”字就與后面賓客的失態作對比。“賓之初筵,溫聞其恭,其未醉止,威儀反反。曰既醉止,威儀幡幡,舍其坐遷,屢舞仙仙。其未醉止,威儀抑抑,曰醉既止,威儀怭怭。是曰既醉,不知其秩。”沒有醉的時候是一個“威儀”的君子,喝醉了就漏出了丑態,沒有一絲威儀,像街頭的流浪漢。這還沒有完,詩經還要接著說“賓既醉止,載號載呶,亂我籩豆,屢舞僛僛。是曰既醉,不知其郵,側弁其俄,屢舞傞傞。既醉而出,并受其福,醉而不出,是謂伐德。”這里賓客更加不堪了,仿佛街頭的流浪漢看見了美食頓時化成了流氓一樣,“伐德”這兩個字足以貶低此時的賓客。我認為能體現當時社會現象的是接下來這一句“彼醉不臧,不醉反恥”說的是那些醉的雖不好,不醉反而愧在心。這是什么一種現象?就是你喝不醉仿佛很丟面子一樣,是一種在當時被看不起的事。就這樣,人與人相互攀比,比誰更能喝?詩經中的諷喻詩大多是表達一種希望,列如這首,它想表達的是反對濫飲提倡禮儀。可以知道,既然當時有這種主張出現,當時社會的酒宴中飲酒無度而失禮敗德的行為一定很嚴重。看實物得從本質出發。

    《魚麗》是一首純粹贊美酒宴的詩,而《賓之初筵》卻是在嘲諷酒宴,這兩者為什么不同呢?這和當時的社會背景有關。那么創作魚麗的人是誰呢?這個這首詩有學者認為應該是當時參加這次宴會的一個賓客所做,不然很多宴會細節必然寫不出來。但是他為什么不寫酒后的醉態呢?因為當時《魚麗》是需要在宴會上唱出來的,寫了不好的東西不但會破壞歡樂的氣氛,可能還會受到主人懲罰。在《毛詩序》看來,《魚麗》是“正詩”,而《賓之初筵》是“變詩”。這有什么不同呢?在我看來宴會內容還是沒變,變得是社會背景。《魚麗》是在周朝強盛時期所做的,此時人民對于周朝大多為“贊美”,而《賓之初筵》卻是在周朝衰落后所做,大都表現人民臣子對君王的不滿。《賓之初筵》這首詩是誰寫的呢?《毛詩序》說:“《賓之初筵》,衛武公刺時也。幽王荒廢,媟近小人,飲酒無度,天下化之,君臣上下沉湎淫液。武公既入,而作是詩也。”可見這是武公自悔之作。當時周幽王時國政荒廢,君臣沉湎于酒,武公入為王卿士,難免與他們一起飲宴,見他們的做法不合禮制,沒有敢直諫,只好作悔過用以自警。可見當時的腐敗程度,王宮如此,社會亦如此。

    《詩經》中描寫美食的并不少,但是能將一種社會現象借美食表達的卻不多。就《魚麗》和《賓之初筵》而言,前者側重“食”,后者側重“事”。簡短的說,任何時候都有人安于享樂,理想狀態與現實境況都存在尖銳矛盾。只是社會現狀不同,當社會繁華時人民就去歌頌,社會衰落時人民就去諷刺,然而上流人士做舉辦宴會的宴會在不同社會背景下并沒有什么不同。《魚麗》和《賓之初筵》也有可能是一場宴會,賦予的時代意義不同罷了。


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