• 當前位置:主頁>原創天地>歷史軍事>

    晉商發展史簡述——興起到鼎盛

    時間:2018-10-27 11:05來源: 作者:青藤門下走狗 點擊:
      

    在海外十余年,對于外人批評吾國商業能力,常無辭以對,獨至有歷史、有基礎、能繼續發達之山西商業,鄙人常以自夸于世界人之前

                                                                                                       ——梁啟超《在山西票商歡迎會演說詞》,1912年

    晉商從默默無聞的小生意者逐漸發展成為富可敵國的豪商巨賈,縱橫捭闔五百余載,足跡遍及大江南北。他們憑借敢為天下先的精神,抓住歷史機遇,將生意從山西一隅做到了世界各地,南至南洋、北至莫斯科、東至日本、西至中亞,業務涉及鹽、茶、糧、布、金屬、典當、票號等諸多行業,成為名副其實的天下第一商幫。

    他們是如何做到的?出于好奇和敬佩,我研讀了大量的晉商史料,對晉商由興起到鼎盛而至巔峰最后衰落的過程有了一個大致的了解,在這里為大家分享一下。

    眾所周知,中國古代重農輕商思想濃厚,認為農業是“本”,工商業為“末”,重本抑末的口號自戰國后期已經流行了一千多年。在農耕思想占絕對主導地位的中國北方,是什么讓三晉大地的子民放棄了千年以來對土地的眷戀,而去追逐所謂的“末”?答案仍然是土地。

    山西是典型的為黃土廣泛覆蓋的山地高原,境內大部分地區海拔在1500米以上,素有“八分山丘二分田”之稱,再加上水土流失嚴重,土地嚴重退化,以至“人稠地狹,本地所出之栗,不足供居民之用,必仰于河南、陜西二省”。為了生存,山西人不得不放棄土地,另覓生途。而他們的機會就在眼前,那就是鹽。

    鹽,為世人必需之物,以此為業利潤頗豐。堯都平陽、舜都蒲坂、禹都安邑均與河東鹽池相伴。河東鹽池居于山西省內中條山北麓,介于解縣(西池)和安邑(東池)之間,古稱解池。秦朝時設置河東郡,解池隸屬于該郡,故而解池之鹽,以“河東”稱之。那些不問農事之人,轉而去曬鹽賣鹽,以此養家糊口,山西商人漸漸興起。

    晉商形成地域性群體轉而走向鼎盛是從明朝開始的。

    明太祖朱元璋以布衣起兵,推翻了蒙古人建立的政權,元朝的殘余勢力退回到蒙古,依舊對中原虎視眈眈。為了鞏固北部邊界,應對蒙古人的騷擾,朱元璋在北部邊境設立了遼東、宣府、大同、延綏(榆林)、寧夏、甘肅、薊州、太原、固原九個軍事重鎮。九邊共屯兵80多萬,再加上軍隊的家屬,人數足足有100多萬。100多萬每天要消耗的糧草時十分巨大的,但邊塞本就不是糧食產區,根本無法供應這么多人的生活。

    為了解決這個問題,朱元璋實行屯田制,由政府劃撥空地荒地給邊鎮軍士,配給種子、耕牛等讓他們自行更重。但邊塞高寒,產糧不多,只能從華北、華中等地由農民運糧到九邊,這對農民來說是一項相當沉重的負擔。但問題總得解決,于是,“開中制”應運而生。

    開中制規定商人只要把糧食運到邊境糧倉,便可向政府換取販賣食鹽的專用執照——鹽引,然后憑鹽引到指定的鹽場支取食鹽,再到政府規定的賣鹽區去銷售食鹽,獲取利潤。

    鹽本是政府壟斷經營的,開中制的實施無疑給了普通山西商人經營的機會。于是,山西商人紛紛南下,推著小車到中原、江南地區購買糧食運到邊境,納中換鹽販鹽營利。憑著頑強的毅力和吃苦耐勞的精神,他們將資本一點點的積累起來,把生意做得越來越大。到了萬歷年間,“鹽政綱法”的實施,使晉商徹底壟斷了鹽業的經營,積累了巨大的商業資本。

    有錢之后,山西人面對的問題不再是如何吃飽飯,而是如何保護并擴大資本,他們的方法是官商結合。我們以明朝時候山西蒲州張、王、楊三家為例。楊博,官至吏部尚書(中央組織部部長),被嚴嵩之子嚴世蕃認為是天下三才之一。楊博的兒女親家王崇古歷任陜甘總督、宣大總督、吏部尚書。王崇古的父親王瑤是山西大鹽商,哥哥王崇義是商人,王崇古的二姐嫁給了蒲州大商人張允齡,生下了張四維。張四維官至內閣首輔(政治局常委),中極殿大學士。張四維的兒子張定征娶了楊博的孫女,張四維的女兒嫁給了同為內閣大臣的的馬自強的兒子馬諄,馬自強的弟弟馬自修又是陜西的大商人。

    楊博,王崇古,張四維,馬自強等人,通過令人眼花繚亂的姻親關系,結合成了牢不可破的利益共同體。正是由于王崇古,張四維等人的極力推動,促成了明朝和蒙古的和解,雙方開啟互市,給了晉商光明正大和蒙古人做生意的機會。

    正是和北方少數民族的貿易使得晉商走向鼎盛,但也為人所詬病。

    當時北上到蒙古的貿易通道一共兩個,一個是西口,西口就是山西省右玉縣城西北方的殺虎口;一個是東口,東口就是張家口。張家口創建于明正德年間,起初僅僅是一個騾馬買賣市場,后來逐漸發展成為一個貿易集散地。明末,張家口有八家山西商人——王登庫、靳良玉、范永斗、王大宇、梁嘉賓、田生蘭、翟堂、黃云發。他們于此地與蒙古族人民進行“馬市”貿易,用從內地運來的各色物件來交換牲畜、皮毛。為了攫取厚利,他們不顧朝廷封鎖邊關的禁令,大肆向后金走私糧食、鹽鐵等他們稀缺的物資,幫助女真人度過了最艱難的歲月。到了后期,更是變本加厲,女真人的全部的火藥、八成的糧食和超過六成的金屬,都是他們提供的。更可惡的是,他們還向女真人出售情報。因為晉商長年在九邊,對九邊軍隊的了解比將領都清楚,再加上他們長年腐化、拉攏中央、地方文武官員,對朝廷政令,軍隊動向了如指掌。可以說他們為清軍最后入主中原立下了汗馬功勞,但卻被評價為“明亡之奸臣,漢衰之奸人”。

    但對清朝統治者就不一樣了,清廷視他們為功臣。清廷入主中原后,這八家旅蒙晉商受到清世宗雍正帝的接見,被封為“內務府皇商”。至此,晉商勢力達到鼎盛。


    頂一下
    (0)
    0%
    踩一下
    (0)
    0%
    ------分隔線----------------------------
    分享到: 更多
    發布者資料
    青藤門下走狗 查看詳細資料 發送留言 加為好友 用戶等級:注冊會員 注冊時間:2018-10-09 19:10 最后登錄:2018-10-26 21:10

    推薦內容

    • 我是一葉小舟

      我本是深山里的小草,因一時貪戀大海的浩瀚,終變成了一葉小舟,在廣闊無邊的海面上飄蕩,...

    • 尋找自己的風采

      愛因斯坦說:“當你把學校教給你的東西全部忘掉之后,剩下來的才是教育。”誠然,我已...

    • “足球”對我來說意味著什么

      一群而立之年的男人們,我們不再自嘲自己橫溢的腰圍,不再嘆息自己縮水的球技,只是在...

    • 我和我的父親--寫在2012年父親節

      我的老爸,是我生命中遇到的第一個男人,也是我這一生永遠放在首位的人,和媽媽并排。...

    • 阻擋你改變的四個“小鬼”

      不管你愿不愿意,改變總會來的。如果你有準備,就會按自己的方式去改變;如果不,就等...

    • 幸福,從心開始

      上重點高中、進名牌大學、出國、進一流企業或做公務員。這是這個社會給我們框定的最完...

    5分pk10平台5分pk10主页5分pk10网站5分pk10官网5分pk10娱乐 www.177804.com | www.982pk.com | bet36560000.com | www.55060u.com | 00048v.com | www.4102r.com | qq00558.com | www.9818s.cc | www.22554100.com | www.610829.com | www.v771177.com | tz1555.com | www.4963zz.com | 9101902.com | www.55vn777.com | 7141hh.com | www.c3518.com | 1077nn.com | www.891079.com | www.sjg700.com | 0033f.cc | www.x55678.com | yh888u.com | www.fcyl2.com | www.25025.cc | www.737198.com | www.34557.com | 530598.com | www.3846ee.com | 22883f.com | www.810612.com | www.60245.com | pp4675.com | www.228128.com | 1466m.com | jnbzsj.com | www.227777.com | rh66666.com | www.999258.com | www.63877p.com | www.448910.com | www.r7793.com | 67890mm.com | www.bi16.com | www.9374o.com | 3202.com | www.5552721.com | 0747yy.com | sss006.com | www.357306.com | b2146.com | www.am7654.com | www.1230404.com | hg999333r.com | www.75353.cc | www.uuuu9999.com | 599hainan.com | www.876433.com | www.555575.com | 58222a.com | www.c130.vip | www.5360uu.com | sbo333.com | www.2373y.com | www.amdc0009.com | fc37.com | www.472255.com | www.28000v.com | 3178x.com | 4451122.com | www.89777o.com | 1288bb.com | 2222150.com | www.biying950vip.com | www.5588hg.com | 0332g.com | www.456258.net | www.365969.com | 8520r.com | www.864155.com | www.38345x.com | 8290h.com | hg999333y.com | www.50989k.com | www.883399u.com | 3679ss.com | www.346177.com | www.t1432.com | www.56733k.com | 021717.com | www.95555w.com | www.624444d.com | 4289k.com | www.980996.com | www.4212h.com | 4997q.com | 78119966.com | www.ct8800.com | www.9737nn.com | 4495.com | 4260011.com | www.609814.com | www.99552yy.com | www.j4737.com | 02.bet | www.332092.com | www.122662.com | www.vns9928.com | 5360z.com | www.504033.com | www.2997772.com | www.sun09.com | 0503.cc | www.77996e.com | www.g98478.com | www.5816ee.com | 45637z.com | js345o.com | www.5095x.com | www.rg6.vip | www.s8866.com | 22299cc.com | www.370833.com | www.9822az.com | www.700hm.com | 8905k.com | 29918h.com | www.hw8877.com | www.2021a.com | www.9889msc.com | h1915.com | 61652v.com | www.3668t.com | www.5719v.com | www.dhycp8811.com | 55545d.com | 4123ww.com | www.665609.com | www.984706.com | www.pj19119.com | 272nn.net | 3156.com | www.43818v.com | www.35918t.com | www.19yh2.com | www.7607633.com | 67877a.com | 78666f.com | www.234972.com | www.50026b.com | www.9570115.com | www.8679822.com | 0747pp.com | b99345.am | 37688i.com | www.c9664.com | www.55676j.com | www.608499.com | www.281566.com | www.34788y.com | www.8099777.com | www.889tyc.com | www.hg2083.com | 496mm.com | 3559zzzz.com | 67890p.com | www.511059.com | www.71233l.com | www.47506o.com | www.622msc.com | www.21365uu.com | 2373.com | 38244l.com | 67890dd.com | 5001s.com | www.786682.com | www.55vn777.com | www.9737xx.me | www.09323.cc | www.43434688.com | 8905k.com | 3788h.com | 3656ss.com | 20160913.tv | www.gczj5.com | www.bj499.com | www.800544.com | www.47748.com | www.ljw036.com | www.4123020.com | 365799.bet | r99345.am | zhcpyy.com | 118888b.com | 3024u.com | www.303467.com | www.5095d.com | www.4323s.com | www.js69vv.cc | www.v01888.com | www.hg8297.com | www.y18001.com | www.ylhg2233.com | www.dz578.com | 2019b.cc | 8905j.com | 52599.com | 3967q.com | yhyunnan.vip | 36406677.com | 998n.cc | 6137q.com | a86811.com | 3156ppp.com | 8501414.com | xpj6602.com | ln114.cc | js648888.com | d7789.com | dz826.com | www.040416.com | www.235117.com | www.315019.com | www.593500.com | www.602475.com | www.854242.com | www.1777ac.com | www.6611b.cc | www.ascp5.com | www.rrle5.com | www.9155e.com | www.32123l.com | www.5086u.com | www.60123s.com | www.71399r.com | www.50026h.com | www.50024w.com | www.78949q.com | www.95999w.com | www.21202i.com | www.88266j.com | www.88266g.com | www.66332r.com | www.81455.com | www.7777ho.com | www.qmkl2.com | www.980797.com | www.393860.com | www.062766.com | 2418.com | 15g1.net | 88833.com | 8789801.com | 3568z.com | mi519.com | 838388p.com | 308827.com | www.jsw66.cc | www.365uu6.com | www.20167744.com | www.0777msc.com | www.tk828.com | www.50000966.com | www.n7764.com | www.flb577.com | www.1122800.com | www.50026m.com | www.97171.cc | www.609816.com | 015015.com | 3614s.com | caipiao99.com | hr1833.com | t2306.com | www.0636c.com | 8036ii.com | www.hg148.com | www.272875.com | www.hg206.com | www.5055msc.com | www.6880uu.com | www.hg7022.com | www.50026w.com | www.626507.com | 91019q.com | 2021www.com | 66671k.com | 2934z.com | www.717xpj.com | www.df6644.com | www.0057a.com | www.60886r.com | www.86267z.com | www.855876.com | www.193006.com | 80878c.com | 3513.com | 22205.com | www.vns0952.com | www.8850w2.com | www.xpj77123.com | www.lqc5.com | 588sss.cc | 4379d.com | 8827kkk.com | www.668567.me | www.yifa325.com | www.42070012.com | www.36788.com | www.303464.com | 69446677.com | bet37544.com | www.33928a08.com | www.138578.com | www.997263.com | www.ch8922.com | dh08199.com | 998i.cc | 20771188.com | www.555030.com | www.0600o.cc | www.978960.com | 3189ee.com | 35222cc.com | jixiang16.com | www.382888.com | www.8905u.com | www.002hy.cc | 18887365.com | wenetian.net | www.h7788z.com | www.19yh6.com | www.8582cc.com | www.399957.com | 91.ag | ca7099.com | www.yh95678.com | www.581137.com | www.560265.com | 850864.com | hhh8827.com | www.jinsha8.net | www.377666q.com | www.qm71.com | 7893w14.com | 3379c.com | www.57798c.com | www.266751.com | www.810730.com | 131bb.net | 2146a.com | www.98333.com | www.86339v.com | www.599049.com | 4023r.com | 500000891.com | www.746128.com | www.32031c.com | www.691071.com | 93888js.com | j15hh.com | www.808msc.com | www.80767b.com | em999.net | ib738.com | www.37337.com | www.81608p.com | jianluntan.pw | 4488o.com | www.ee2229.com | www.48330q.com | www.80075u.com | 2998yh.com | www.bc581.com | www.tyc44222.com | 3066hhh.com | 9649u.com | www.036888.com | www.71233f.com | 44488y.com | 20188z.com | www.v69096.com | www.682224.com | 940.net | www.hg9334.com | www.js18682.com | 667766j.com | 258702.com | www.56655s.com | www.csgc7.com | 1434s.com | www.v3303.com | www.8017111.com | 91590.com | a0066.com | www.xlcp.com | www.921399.com | pj520.com | www.130031.com | www.80065f.com | y2146.com | www.hg8987.com | www.5856886.com | 32126c.net | www.4759mm.com | www.7920x.com | 50000988.com | www.7435c.com | www.s94600.com | 66876g.com | www.8520p.com | www.42070012.com | 22xx8332.com | www.2836536365.com | www.78919d.com | 23233p.com | www.m33678.com | www.730555.com | 5804b.com | www.25673.com | www.x99789.com | 22885144.com | www.3643v.com | www.78700j.com | 15f8.net | www.hg8178.com | www.zcwf9.com | 3559u.com | www.cai51.com | www.202880.com | 35441999.com | www.17jsc.com | 444000hh.com | www.9068ii.com | www.26299g.com | 80567j.com | www.67886788.com | www.500227.com | 2613f.com | www.626332.com | 60540022.com | www.609494.com | www.979133.com | 44jj8332.com | www.73990b.com | 889345.com | www.caipiao050.com | www.068wy.com | 6118g.com | www.55526d.com | www.230967.com | 99151e.com | www.86339n.com | 7894.cc | www.vnsr2018g.com | www.712012.com | qq365y.com | www.siji06.com | jixiang.com | www.566858.com | www.599474.com | 2992535.com | www.073770.com | 3522i.vip | www.18123.com | 80850p.com | www.2846f.com | www.3478h.cc | 8030q.com | www.843881.com | 7249j.com | www.19yh6.com | 1429x.com | www.321329.com | www.314577.com | 1098.com | www.8816u.com | 24005.com | www.32031v.com | vv00558.com | www.77fh.com | alpk22.com | www.wd00004.com | www.205880.com | www.wnsr038.com | www.987931.com | 38989y.com | www.91233hh.com | 00558.com | www.5856885.com | 31553a.com | www.07679f.com | 3045522.com | www.680588.com | 3559dddd.com | www.ggq.99233q.com | 51200hh.com | www.suncity3.com | 3552h.com | www.97877a.com | 97987-5.com | www.22gp.com | 0687222.com | www.78am9999.com | www.177564.com | www.0153h.com | www.101136.com | www.xpj4494.com | www.235672.com | www.hg7227.com | 111b9.com | www.xpj9780.com | www.52072a.com | www.49123456.com | 8894.com | www.3777338.com | yh20140.vip | www.0057c.com | 5651bcom | www.758908.com | 88119f.com | www.flb902.com | 07.tt | www.61233k.com | wfcp000111.com | www.918ar.com | www.410zr.com | www.723095.com | www.f5566.com | 79964h.com | www.esb116.net | 1408q.com | www.04567p.com | 58802b.com | www.88325n.com | 272m.net | www.26163b.com | www.xpj716.com | 91019h.net | www.7720z.com | www.598074.com | www.36796.com | 659pj.com | 3788q.com | www.5484g.com | www.xinhao4455.com | 8790t.com | www.9996qq.com | www.yh8220.com | 505ooo.com | www.83033c.com | www.xb0022.com | 3473j.com | www.ct6676.com | www.5349.com | 418626.com | www.702309.com | www.lyjcp.cc | 5219v.com | www.250552.com | www.hg8nn.com | 88807s.com | 1333m.com | www.9187c.com | www.yddc09.com | 61652u.com | www.91233k.com | www.0860p.com | 25288t.com | www.11czj.com | www.178222a.com | 4590r.com | www.585065.com | www.dzj0707.com | 2247uu.com | 5456r.com | www.4323h.com | www.57768u.com | wlb55.com | www.166127.com | www.55070e.com | bm1395.com | 1489w.com | www.5095e.com | www.77731g.com | d35151.com | xycp88.com | www.pj99n.com | www.pj5664.com | 888333.com | www.65707i.com | www.509261.com | www.yinhecc00.com | newsxweew12.com | www.am7979.com | www.5049w.com | 2820r.com | 2618a.com | www.gock3.com | www.79500r.com | yy38648.cc | 22883y.com | www.960307.com | www.3983.com | www.6033p.com | 4647055.com | www.638262.com | www.4809m.com | www.456131.com | xpj888e.com | 51133hhh.com | www.204500.com | www.a773776.com | www.725025.com | www.yddc666.com | 35222g.com | 5002com | www.c9221.com | www.50685d.com | www.yinhe899.com | 2649ii.com | 3049c.com | 56987ww.com | www.80844.com | www.gm41.com | www.h7788x.com | 7894x53.com | b899.xyz | www.308388.com | www.88266r.com | www.xpj2060.com | www.25288y.com | m77304.com | 4255ee.com | 45637f.com | www.055v.cc | www.630468.com | www.hg30.com | www.111xhtd.com | h88.com | 1483b.com | www.43131m.com | www.2934v.com | www.3846aa.com | www.767613.com | www.831813.com | 3522c.vip | bojiandu.com | 99111mm.com | www.730625.com | www.00889.com | www.bet63m.com | www.777888yh.com | www.333222g.com | 6766vv.com | 9993657.com | 3511.sbf822.com | www.560103.com | www.43818x.com | www.38775tt.com | www.68277555.com | www.2078w.com | 3009r.com | 2324nnn.com | 8722.com | 9103uu.com | www.420421.com | www.3933b.cc | www.87480.com | www.35700aa.com | www.18997.com | www.xin777888.com | 4255yy.com | qq365f.com | 33432i.com | 7893w22.com | 85882.com | www.560691.com | www.2109u.com | www.130057.com | www.908818.com | www.1108617.com | www.550515.com | www.700h.com | n07958.net | ying58.xyz | i01234.com | 33382ff.com | 1466z.com | h00851jc.com | www.178625.com | www.799845.com | www.15236.cc | www.yun990.com | www.vns44.me | www.80188p.com | www.1705.com | www.803kj.com | www.hg7111.com | www.8494j.com | ziz3.com | 131ss.net | 35222w.com | 7599p.com | ff3189.com | 61789t.com | 54141166.com | 20188s.com | www.210155.com | www.701337.com | www.661661a.com | www.1248i.cc | www.44050.cc | www.50051r.com | www.99788f.com | www.150158.com | www.456333.net | www.20365vip.com | www.4102x.com | www.460017.com | www.601709.com | www.6880kk.com | www.55060u.com | www.8885hj.com | www.jz298.com | www.163a3.com | www.668cp88.com | www.http://976880.com/ | www.hg8297.com | www.xam03.com | www.827hg.com | www.zr55555.com | www.t7888.com | www.853789.com | www.383188.com | www.635365.com | www.12706.com | www.mk938.com | www.kzcs4.com | www.a9478.com | www.5049b.com | www.177158.com | www.88166h.com | www.hyi664.com | www.6880vv.com | www.4521h.com | www.07679z.com | www.392229.com | www.js9090.com | www.bj399.com | www.83993w.com | www.29277t.com | www.7782f.com | www.caim4.com | www.1366i.com | www.9679s.com | www.3775775.com | www.636123.com | www.zte888.com | www.4972g.com | www.7225q.com | www.3846g.com | www.6768992.com | www.84499d.com | www.5086q.com | www.907994.com | www.394311.com | 99988807.com | yd12302.cc | 45460006.com | 1315553.com | wlb444.com | 3245.com | www.kj638.com | www.7111p.com | www.yh6777.com | www.androidappforxgsaimahui.com | www.07576.com | www.a1432.com | www.75600y.com | www.hg6222.com | www.085wy.com | www.810897.com | www.131671.com | z58955.com | 4647055.com | 3614q.com | 4023.com | www.5555365.com | www.079305.com | www.qmc0033.com | www.6386b.com | www.sx139972.com | www.ycp4.com | www.207882.com | tz1555.com | bet365.com | 3522700.com | www.68666v.com | www.1818xpj.com | www.ra0008.com | www.79095t.com | www.ky1005.com | www.976381.com | www.52303v.com | 1116076.com | 57157a.com | 8827uuu.com | www.77537s.com | www.cq0066.com | www.6687u.com | www.84499f.com | www.754880.com | 111122ii.com | 223536.com | 56988s.vip | www.8694w.com | www.288-563.cc | www.ttt2848.com | www.25688h.com | www.339132.com | 771381.com | xx01234.com | www.56733t.com | www.hg7321.com | www.80188s.com | www.95222w.com | www.545568.com | 32355pp.com | FuXingCai.com | www.y1311.com | www.01389.com | www.62979d.com | www.8499g.com | www.81520o.com | 9438k.com | 6830v.com | www.777307.com | www.00772c.com | www.66376t.com | www.196091.com | hg1558.com | 8030l.com | www.773339.cc | www.1851113.com | www.50080w.com | www.060640.com | 13359455.com | 1077xxx.com | www.hg7644.com | www.89386.com | www.hw7890.com | 272e.net | zb129.com | www.1112558.com | www.0590777.com | www.78949j.com | www.87668o.com | 88851i.com | 44ms888.com | www.776775.com | www.1237777.cc | www.587944.com | 3640y.com | 3121v.com | www.882244.com | www.5282288.com | www.701487.com | 234902.com | 2418005.com | www.7646.com | www.2418u.com | www.202405.com | 6572n.com | www.4759jj.com | www.844218.com | www.16878d.com | 3169h.com | 5309.com | www.vns99888.cc | www.xpj13666.com | www.665879.com | evuyl.com | 58802w.com | www.yin3939.com | www.26878x.com | 20774444.com | 2234yh.com | www.hg2809.com | www.hg81999.com | www.87668o.com | 9068mm.com | www.4261144.com | www.52062n.com | www.361770.com | 998i.cc | www.3459a.com | www.30350y.com | www.582977.com | aobo45.com | www.9374m.com | www.http://09991.com | www.856657.com | 56988ll.com | www.yh8213.com | www.302161.com | www.627029.com | 1702222.com | www.3643f.com | www.js89y.vip | www.369071.com | 40033ddd.com | www.7036ee.com | www.ihg5555.com | 44ss8331.com | 22ss8331.com | www.597567.com | www.8816l.com | 2021ppp.com | www.hgc444.com | www.06820x.com | www.505518.com | 5856e.com | www.xpj3210.com | www.pj56899.com | 23800s.com | 5005j.com | www.sha4000.com | www.567306.com | i40033.com | www.hg8547.com | www.43818f.com | 916.com | www.004455.net | www.52062v.com | 299770.com | oo2205.com | www.71071m.com | www.651012.com | 019666.com | www.89055.com | www.787zf.com | 667766i.com | www.hongbaoy35.com | www.dayou800.com | 11422x.com | www.0000wnsr.com | www.1764k.com | 500000335.com | qq01234.com | www.91779n.com | www.65707a.com | 66876e.com | www.biying940vip.com | www.270667.com | sha161.com | www.8967d.com | www.390366.com | 375656.com | www.k32939.com | www.271051.com | lh66h.com | www.00773f.com | www.07163m.com | bwinlll.com | www.57798.com | www.du126.com | 3890p.com | www.hshg22.com | www.737689.com | f423.com | www.9737mm.me | www.97655u.com | 256777m.com | www.07679x.com | 21866b.com | www.577628.com | www.169097.com | qqq4165.com | www.jp328.com | www.hy5506.com | so111.cc | www.9299.com | www.kc88y.com | 66458e.com | www.hg594.com | 3559qq.com | www.zr111111.com | www.1368e.cc | 55967d.com | www.331133.com | www.60108e.com | h8159.cc | www.4331m.com | t365j.com | www.72747.com | www.701671.com | 951202.com | www.m2894.com | 2127z.com | www.8085js.com | www.2632k.com | qpby2277.com | www.6668a.vip | jxf964.com | www.5557888.com | www.08588r.com | 4022y.com | www.4136p.com | 1077cc.com | www.21365kk.com | www.2109f.com | 22uu8332.com | www.456.ceo | 1168x.com | www.3170003.com | www.677879.com | le888m.com | www.89777i.com | 0022ttt.com | www.rgcp.com | 62222r.com | www.7025k.com | www.c2798.com | 50099x.com | www.x98478.com | 25288z.com | www.c3c3.com | 89439922.com | www.438msc.com | www.967699.com | 3379aa.com | www.4058w.com | 7720r.com | www.57800y.com | 5350s.com | www.133774.com | www.249711.com | www.343xpj.com | www.982jc.com | 8303.com | www.9422f.com | 1458k.com | www.1559507.com | 930238.com | www.pj299299.com | 33928.com | www.pj2598.com | www.499428.com | www.4759uu.com | www.28czj.com | 3189hd.com | www.ee563.com | 2ub.com | www.7920a.com | 092.com | www.1429e1.com | 928012.com | www.8316.com | 62220.com | www.blr730.com | 44446.com | www.0977711.com | www.50024e.com | www.9679s.com | www.377955.com | www.xpj3368.com | www.756059.com | www.89422.com | www.qmfc6.com | bifa810.com | www.3126m.com | 83086s.com | www.5522f.cc | 2543009.com | www.8499a.com | 56988x.com | www.3479t.com | 88948999.com | www.slyl5.com |