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    晉商發展史簡述——興起到鼎盛

    時間:2018-10-27 11:05來源: 作者:青藤門下走狗 點擊:
      

    在海外十余年,對于外人批評吾國商業能力,常無辭以對,獨至有歷史、有基礎、能繼續發達之山西商業,鄙人常以自夸于世界人之前

                                                                                                       ——梁啟超《在山西票商歡迎會演說詞》,1912年

    晉商從默默無聞的小生意者逐漸發展成為富可敵國的豪商巨賈,縱橫捭闔五百余載,足跡遍及大江南北。他們憑借敢為天下先的精神,抓住歷史機遇,將生意從山西一隅做到了世界各地,南至南洋、北至莫斯科、東至日本、西至中亞,業務涉及鹽、茶、糧、布、金屬、典當、票號等諸多行業,成為名副其實的天下第一商幫。

    他們是如何做到的?出于好奇和敬佩,我研讀了大量的晉商史料,對晉商由興起到鼎盛而至巔峰最后衰落的過程有了一個大致的了解,在這里為大家分享一下。

    眾所周知,中國古代重農輕商思想濃厚,認為農業是“本”,工商業為“末”,重本抑末的口號自戰國后期已經流行了一千多年。在農耕思想占絕對主導地位的中國北方,是什么讓三晉大地的子民放棄了千年以來對土地的眷戀,而去追逐所謂的“末”?答案仍然是土地。

    山西是典型的為黃土廣泛覆蓋的山地高原,境內大部分地區海拔在1500米以上,素有“八分山丘二分田”之稱,再加上水土流失嚴重,土地嚴重退化,以至“人稠地狹,本地所出之栗,不足供居民之用,必仰于河南、陜西二省”。為了生存,山西人不得不放棄土地,另覓生途。而他們的機會就在眼前,那就是鹽。

    鹽,為世人必需之物,以此為業利潤頗豐。堯都平陽、舜都蒲坂、禹都安邑均與河東鹽池相伴。河東鹽池居于山西省內中條山北麓,介于解縣(西池)和安邑(東池)之間,古稱解池。秦朝時設置河東郡,解池隸屬于該郡,故而解池之鹽,以“河東”稱之。那些不問農事之人,轉而去曬鹽賣鹽,以此養家糊口,山西商人漸漸興起。

    晉商形成地域性群體轉而走向鼎盛是從明朝開始的。

    明太祖朱元璋以布衣起兵,推翻了蒙古人建立的政權,元朝的殘余勢力退回到蒙古,依舊對中原虎視眈眈。為了鞏固北部邊界,應對蒙古人的騷擾,朱元璋在北部邊境設立了遼東、宣府、大同、延綏(榆林)、寧夏、甘肅、薊州、太原、固原九個軍事重鎮。九邊共屯兵80多萬,再加上軍隊的家屬,人數足足有100多萬。100多萬每天要消耗的糧草時十分巨大的,但邊塞本就不是糧食產區,根本無法供應這么多人的生活。

    為了解決這個問題,朱元璋實行屯田制,由政府劃撥空地荒地給邊鎮軍士,配給種子、耕牛等讓他們自行更重。但邊塞高寒,產糧不多,只能從華北、華中等地由農民運糧到九邊,這對農民來說是一項相當沉重的負擔。但問題總得解決,于是,“開中制”應運而生。

    開中制規定商人只要把糧食運到邊境糧倉,便可向政府換取販賣食鹽的專用執照——鹽引,然后憑鹽引到指定的鹽場支取食鹽,再到政府規定的賣鹽區去銷售食鹽,獲取利潤。

    鹽本是政府壟斷經營的,開中制的實施無疑給了普通山西商人經營的機會。于是,山西商人紛紛南下,推著小車到中原、江南地區購買糧食運到邊境,納中換鹽販鹽營利。憑著頑強的毅力和吃苦耐勞的精神,他們將資本一點點的積累起來,把生意做得越來越大。到了萬歷年間,“鹽政綱法”的實施,使晉商徹底壟斷了鹽業的經營,積累了巨大的商業資本。

    有錢之后,山西人面對的問題不再是如何吃飽飯,而是如何保護并擴大資本,他們的方法是官商結合。我們以明朝時候山西蒲州張、王、楊三家為例。楊博,官至吏部尚書(中央組織部部長),被嚴嵩之子嚴世蕃認為是天下三才之一。楊博的兒女親家王崇古歷任陜甘總督、宣大總督、吏部尚書。王崇古的父親王瑤是山西大鹽商,哥哥王崇義是商人,王崇古的二姐嫁給了蒲州大商人張允齡,生下了張四維。張四維官至內閣首輔(政治局常委),中極殿大學士。張四維的兒子張定征娶了楊博的孫女,張四維的女兒嫁給了同為內閣大臣的的馬自強的兒子馬諄,馬自強的弟弟馬自修又是陜西的大商人。

    楊博,王崇古,張四維,馬自強等人,通過令人眼花繚亂的姻親關系,結合成了牢不可破的利益共同體。正是由于王崇古,張四維等人的極力推動,促成了明朝和蒙古的和解,雙方開啟互市,給了晉商光明正大和蒙古人做生意的機會。

    正是和北方少數民族的貿易使得晉商走向鼎盛,但也為人所詬病。

    當時北上到蒙古的貿易通道一共兩個,一個是西口,西口就是山西省右玉縣城西北方的殺虎口;一個是東口,東口就是張家口。張家口創建于明正德年間,起初僅僅是一個騾馬買賣市場,后來逐漸發展成為一個貿易集散地。明末,張家口有八家山西商人——王登庫、靳良玉、范永斗、王大宇、梁嘉賓、田生蘭、翟堂、黃云發。他們于此地與蒙古族人民進行“馬市”貿易,用從內地運來的各色物件來交換牲畜、皮毛。為了攫取厚利,他們不顧朝廷封鎖邊關的禁令,大肆向后金走私糧食、鹽鐵等他們稀缺的物資,幫助女真人度過了最艱難的歲月。到了后期,更是變本加厲,女真人的全部的火藥、八成的糧食和超過六成的金屬,都是他們提供的。更可惡的是,他們還向女真人出售情報。因為晉商長年在九邊,對九邊軍隊的了解比將領都清楚,再加上他們長年腐化、拉攏中央、地方文武官員,對朝廷政令,軍隊動向了如指掌。可以說他們為清軍最后入主中原立下了汗馬功勞,但卻被評價為“明亡之奸臣,漢衰之奸人”。

    但對清朝統治者就不一樣了,清廷視他們為功臣。清廷入主中原后,這八家旅蒙晉商受到清世宗雍正帝的接見,被封為“內務府皇商”。至此,晉商勢力達到鼎盛。


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